Combine the flour, baking powder, baking soda, salt, and sugar in a medium bowl and stir using a balloon whisk to combine.
Add the wet ingredients: buttermilk, butter, and vanilla, and mix until smooth. Be careful not to overmix the batter.
Let the batter rest for 10 - 15 minutes.
Heat a medium non-stick skillet pan or electric griddle over medium-low heat. Wipe over with a dab of butter to lightly grease the pan.
Pour a 1/4-cupful of batter into the pan. Top evenly with blueberries, as many or few as you prefer. Cook for 1-2 minutes or until bubbles rise to the surface and the base is golden brown. Use a spatula to turn and cook the other side until golden brown and cooked through. Transfer to a plate and repeat with the remaining batter.
Serve pancakes warm, with butter, maple syrup, or honey, more fresh blueberries, and/or whipped cream.